Two years later, at age thirty, Marshall became chief counsel when Houston returned to Howard. The NAACPs initial goal was to funnel equal resources to black schools. The NAACP shared a statement from Cissy Marshall, the justice's 92-year-old widow, who said the fund is especially meaningful to her "because of Thurgood… Founded in 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sought to, “to achieve equality of rights and eliminate race prejudice among the citizens of the United States. Autherine Lucy and Thurgood Marshall, her lawyer, entering the NAACP office for a press conference. I said for what? As one of his clients recalled, "until Marshall came, [that] law was whatever a white lawyer or white policeman or white judge said it was.". Thurgood Marshall Timeline Timeline Description: Thurgood Marshall worked with the NAACP to find freedom for all people. So after they’d decide the case, they’re going to finish the cigar before they come in. While there, Marshall encountered many political figures and civil rights leaders: One of Marshall duties was to travel to courtrooms in the Deep South to represent black clients who were often the victims of racists police and judges. He would come home and engage Marshall and his brother in lawyerly arguments. A: At one time (W.E.B.) Before Marshall arrived at the NAACP, its legal strategy was to make "separate but equal" truly equal by fighting to get equal funding for segregated all-black schools. Looby was driving and they pulled him over and they said you weren’t driving this car were you? It was a dry county and they were going to search the car. Marshall was chief counsel for the NAACP and argued numerous civil rights cases before the Supreme Court. Part of HuffPost Politics. One of his favorite concerned his days as the head of the legal arm of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in the 1930s and 1940s representing black clients facing prosecution in the South. Vivian "Buster" Burey Marshall was an American civil rights activist and was married for 25 years until her death to Thurgood Marshall, lead counsel for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, who also managed Brown v. Board of Education (1954). February 7, 2021 3:00 am on WORLD | Episode #0 | 57 minutes . Most significant was Brown v. Boar… You understand that? But when they needed attorneys, it was the NAACP they turned to. As the head of the NAACP's legal arm, he worked under repressive conditions with limited budgets. And you know what? They followed us out of town. And so go toward them, but not from them. Goodbye. And he said what did you say? ... Until his retirement from the Court in 1991, Marshall continued to strive to protect the rights of all citizens. Marshall served on the Court from 1967 to 1991. He said, I can tell. During this period, Mr. Marshall was asked by the United Nations and the United Kingdom to help draft the constitutions of the emerging African nations of Ghana and what is now Tanzania. Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Senate Minority Whip Jon Kyl of Arizona attacked Marshall for his "determination to protect the underdog." So, to make a long story short, the jury went out, no, while the jury was going on, I looked at the whole jury face to face – all white, of course – and everyone had a Shriner pin on him. “History teaches that grave threats to liberty often come in times of urgency, when constitutional rights seem too extravagant to endure.” 5. February, 1956. They didn’t catch us at all. He said well go ahead. And I don’t know how long after that, but we got it commuted it to life. v. Board of Education of Topeka. Thurgood Marshall died of heart failure on January 24, 1993. But one case in Florida during the 1950s caught his attention. "I wouldn't do the job of dogcatcher for Ronald Reagan," he said in a 1989 interview. One of Marshall's innovations was to file a Brandeis Brief that did not rely solely on legal theory, but also drew on studies by sociologists and psychologists that documented the harmful effects of segregation. That you raped that woman. “The Legal Attack to Secure Civil Rights,” July 13, 1942. And [name] the judge, I said he sure as hell will give you the death penalty, so it’s up to you. After these victories, he recruited plaintiffs to tackle segregation in public elementary and high schools. In his spare time, Marshall's father liked to visit Baltimore courtrooms and listen to the cases. Well, Judge [Truman] Futch and I had been off the record discussing Masonic business with my 33rd degree ring and he only had a 32nd degree ring, I told him he was in the wrong bunch. Thurgood Marshall was born Thoroughgood Marshall on June 2, 1908 in Baltimore, Maryland. He sued school districts in South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, the District of Columbia, and Kansas on behalf of local parents and students. In 2010 President Barack Obama appointed one of Marshall's former law clerks, Elena Kagan, to the Supreme Court. A Thurgood Marshall timeline: provided by A Deeper Shade of Black. (cum laude) 1933 Receives law degree from Howard U. A Harvard Law School graduate, Houston was the first black lawyer to win a case before the US Supreme Court. About the Film: For Civil rights attorney Thurgood Marshall, the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision to desegregate America’s public schools completed the final leg of an heroic journey to end legal segregation. This combo of file photos from Washington show Supreme Court Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall on Oct. 24, 1967; and Constance Baker Motley, nominated to be judge of the southern district of New York, at her confirmation hearing, on April 4, 1966. In 1934, he played a significant role for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) branch which was located in Baltimore. But we went along with them to make sure they put some liquor in there. The Thurgood Marshall Institute is a multidisciplinary center within the NAACP Legal Defense Fund dedicated to research, advocacy campaigns and organizing. The NAACP also worked for more than a decade seeking federal anti-lynching legislation, but the Solid South of white Democrats voted as a bloc against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. Decades before Thurgood Marshall was sworn into the U.S. Supreme Court on October 2, 1967, the man who would become its first Black justice had already transformed American law. We first went down to Mink Slide [the black neighborhood in Columbia] on our way out to get a bottle of whiskey. In 1946 he was awarded the Springarn Medal for all his achievements and hard work for the NAACP. athletes crossed the color line in professional and amateur sports. Marshall abandoned that approach in favor of challenging segregation itself. Q: This guy had been reversed on appeal before you came? Write a speech, so much a minute. Follow LDF on Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. While there, Marshall encountered many political figures and civil rights leaders The cases were consolidated under the Kansas lawsuit, Oliver Brown et al. But when his health deteriorated, he retired in 1991 after twenty-four years on the Supreme Court. From PBS - Civil rights attorney Thurgood Marshall’s triumph in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision to desegregate America’s public schools completed the final leg of an heroic journey to end legal segregation. Du Bois’ office was right next to mine. While in law school, Marshall would sometimes cut classes to watch Davis argue before the Court. During a death penalty argument in 1981, Justice William Rehnquist said that the prisoner's repeated appeals had cost the taxpayers too much money. I said I’ll go where you go. Marshall had hoped to wait to retire until a Democrat was elected president and could replace him. I said, sir, I’m waiting for the train to Louisiana. Well Looby wouldn’t leave. In 1946 he was awarded the Springarn Medal for all his achievements and hard work for the NAACP. Thurgood Marshall was an American lawyer who was appointed as an associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1967. That man hasn’t had a drink in 24 hours, he said, what the hell are you talking about. As an attorney, he successfully argued before the Supreme Court the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954). B. Thurgood Marshall & the NAACP The actions of the NAACP played a crucial role on the road to integrating schools in America. But this work also brought him face-to-face with these bitter segregationists: After one case in Tennessee, Marshall was nearly lynched for his work: There were so many cases where black defendants appealed to Marshall for help that he set a very high standard for accepting any client. Founded in 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sought to, “to achieve equality of rights and eliminate race prejudice among the citizens of the United States. Q: You were defending Lloyd Kennedy and William Pillow after a race riot (in Columbia, Tennessee) and they were accused of shooting a cop. I turned around to look and they were gone. Peter Dreier is the E.P. His father, who had been a Pullman car waiter, worked as a steward at an exclusive, all-white yacht club. Not enough of the real NAACP lawyer shows up in Chadwick Boseman’s portrayal Southern senators held up the appointment for almost a year, challenging his legal credentials but obviously opposed to him because he was black and a civil rights pioneer. Marshall worked on NAACP's national staff under the direction of Charles Houston, his mentor … I just sold the last two bottles to the judge. As a member of the National Lawyers Guild, which represented civil rights groups and accused Communists, History says Marshall was suspected by the FBI of being a Communist sympathizer. Not enough of the real NAACP lawyer shows up in Chadwick Boseman’s portrayal Over the next several years, Marshall traveled the country defending African-Americans who were often wrongly accused. So they followed Looby’s car which they’d hoped they would do. I wasn’t hungry anymore I wasn’t thinking about eating because it dawned on me he could just blow my head off and he wouldn’t even have to go to court. Marshall had been one of the NAACP's top lawyers. Get the film! Every one of those jurors has got a Shriners pin, did you notice that? I know damn well he was innocent. Thurgood Marshall, who was born on this date in 1908, liked telling stories. Marshall successfully challenged the board to only litig… However, he lacked experience, and this prevented him from landing in any cases. I said drunken driving? Tired of having his friends poke fun at his first name, he decided to try to improve the situation and, at the age of six, legally changed it to Thurgood. Q: Where’d you go from there? Awards and Honors: The Thurgood Marshall Award, established in 1992 by the American Bar Association, is presented annually to a recipient to recognize "long-term contributions by members of the legal profession to the advancement of civil rights, civil liberties, and human rights in the United States," the ABA says. E.P. You’re drunk. Some civil rights activists disparaged the NAACP's legal approach to dismantling segregation, contending that civil disobedience was a more effective tool to change public opinion and pressure politicians and businesses to change their practices. No, no, those I took, maybe, well take one, Walter Lee Irvin in upper Florida who was charged with raping a woman down there. Once, in Columbia, Mississippi, after an all-white jury acquitted his black clients--a rare occurrence--he was nearly lynched, with the help of local police. A: That’s when they tried to lynch me. He said, what does that mean? Clapp Distinguished Professor of Politics and chair of the Urban & Environmental Policy Department at Occidental College. He said, I wouldn’t do it. When he’s finished that cigar, the jury will come back. I said how? We made it easy for you to exercise your right to vote! What happens if he’s found not guilty? I remembe that his whole room was fenced in with books that ran all the way around the room and we were always impressed by it of course. Mr Civil Rights: Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP. The guy behind me, where I was sitting in the back seat, I couldn’t see who it was but I heard what he said. In 1946 he was awarded the Springarn Medal for all his achievements and hard work for the NAACP. Q: What was the verdict? Thurgood Marshall, originally Thoroughgood Marshall, (born July 2, 1908, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.—died January 24, 1993, Bethesda), lawyer, civil rights activist, and associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1967–91), the Court’s first African American member. Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama, the ranking Republican on the Judiciary Committee, criticized Marshall as a "liberal activist judge." Thurgood Marshall Timeline Timeline Description: Thurgood Marshall worked with the NAACP to find freedom for all people. He said he told Looby to go to Nashville and don’t follow them and then they drove toward Duck River. He became increasingly frustrated by the country's failure to carry out the provisions of the landmark rulings intended not only to dismantle legal segregation but also to bring about more racial and social equality. Marshall learned about the US Constitution as a young boy as punishment for being a hell-raiser in school. He broke down racial barriers, including achieving one of the highest positions in the government as a member of the Supreme Court. And sure enough the mob was coming around when we let. In 1935, Houston directed the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, and Marshall was his right-hand man. And I went up while the jury was out and I said, Judge Futch, I’m quite serious about this, I’m going to make ‘em lose. A: I felt that, Irvin’s mother had me awake all night, every night. Upcoming Episodes. Marshall received the inaugural award in 1992. And I said, why not? Goodbye. And I said well I’m waiting. I’m going to be stuck with that for life. Prior to his judicial service, he successfully argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Brown v. Board of Education. Four members of the NAACP (from left to right, Henry Moon, Roy Wilkins, Herbert Hill and Thurgood Marshall) hold a poster against racial injustice in Mississippi. ©2021 BuzzFeed, Inc. All rights reserved. He was one of the lawyers who argued They said they looked in there and they couldn’t find any liquor in the car so one of them said, do you permit us to search your person? And incidentally, when they found out I wasn’t in it, they beat that driver bad enough that he was in the hospital for a week. He stamped out his cigar. He said drunken driving. In 1946 he was awarded the Springarn Medal for all his achievements and hard work for the NAACP. He won his first Supreme Court case, Chambers v. Florida (1940), at the age of thirty-two. Thurgood Marshall argued, and won more US Supreme Court cases than anyone in history. He traveled 30,000 miles a year, on the back roads of the Deep South fighting for desegregation and against Jim Crow law. One of his best known was in a 1973 case, San Antonio School District v. Rodriguez, in which the court ruled by a 5-4 vote that Texas's system of funding public schools through property taxes--which meant that wealthy communities spent much more than poor ones--did not violate the Constitution's equal protection mandate. Thurgood Marshall argued, and won more US Supreme Court cases than anyone in history. He gives the distress signal all the time. Directed by Mick Caouette. As a lawyer, he championed civil rights and was the lead lawyer in the pivotal Supreme Court Case Brown vs Board of Education, Topeka (1954). February, 1956. His mother pawned her wedding and engagement rings to pay the entrance fees, and Marshall commuted each day from Baltimore so he could live at home and save money. On the first day of her confirmation hearings, Marshall's name came up thirty-five times. “You do what you think is right and let the law catch up.” 4. Thurgood Marshall, a trailblazer, in the Supreme Court. Marshall would have worn those attacks as a badge of honor. Marshall grew up in segregated Baltimore, Maryland, where, he recalled, "there wasn't a single department store that would let a Negro in the front door." Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland. As his liberal colleagues left the court, to be replaced by four conservative justices appointed by Richard Nixon, the court's center of gravity shifted, and Marshall became well-known for his articulate dissenting opinions. Fine. Occasion: Speech given at the NAACP Wartime Conference, Chicago, IL. Marshall served on the Court from 1967 to 1991. Marshall served on the Court from 1967 to 1991. Several of his dissenting opinions were eventually adopted as majority opinions by the Supreme Court. Marshall wanted to attend the University of Maryland's law school, a few blocks from his home, but it barred blacks. He said, that I raped that whore? I know, is there anybody else, a relative, somebody you can depend on? Got back to town and it was empty. A: No, I reversed it. But I talked to the janitor of the building, he was there one day and I was saying something, and he said, you know that Dr. Du Bois and all those books he’s got in his room? 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